A much-needed, precise and practical treatment of a key topic in the energy industry and beyond, Applied Concepts in Fractured Reservoirs is an invaluable reference for those in both industry and academia Authored by renowned experts in the field, this book covers the understanding, evaluation, and effects of fractures in reservoirs. It offers a comprehensive yet practical discussion and description of natural fractures, their origins, characteristics, and effects on hydrocarbon reservoirs. It starts by introducing the reader to basic definitions and classifications of fractures and fractured reservoirs. It then provides an outline for fractured-reservoir characterization and analysis, and goes on to introduce the way fractures impact operational activities. Well organized and clearly illustrated throughout, Applied Concepts in Fractured Reservoirs starts with a section on understanding natural fractures. It looks at the different types, their dimensions, and the mechanics of fracturing rock in extension and shear. The next section provides information on measuring and analyzing fractures in reservoirs. It covers: logging core for fractures; taking, measuring, and analyzing fracture data; new core vs. archived core; CT scans; comparing fracture data from outcrops, core, and logs; and more. The last part examines the effects of natural fractures on reservoirs, including: the permeability behavior of individual fractures and fracture systems; fracture volumetrics; effects of fractures on drilling and coring; and the interaction between natural and hydraulic fractures. Teaches readers to understand and evaluate fractures Compiles and synthesizes various concepts and descriptions scattered in literature and synthesizes them with unpublished oil-field observations and data, along with the authors’ own experience Bridges some of the gaps between reservoir engineers and geologists Provides an invaluable reference for geologists and engineers who need to understand naturally fractured reservoirs in order to efficiently extract hydrocarbons Illustrated in full color throughout Companion volume to the Atlas of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core
do not fall into four discrete bins, and as Nelson notes, fractured-reservoir characteristics form a spectrum in terms of fracture intensity and permeability relative to the matrix rock. Nevertheless, if fractures can be characterized ...
Author: John C. Lorenz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Provides information from around the world on creep in multiple high-temperature metals, alloys, and advanced materials.
Spectrum 101 Spectrum 108 Spectrura 30 Spectrum se Spectru Be Spocoa 104 Spectrum 4 Spectrum $ 4 Spectrum 102 Spectrun 107 Spectrum 113 Spectrum 110 Spectrum 87 Spectrum 99 Spectra B Spectrum 114 Spectrum 109 Spectra 400 Spectrum 908 ...
Author: European Creep Collaborative Committee
Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc
Category: Technology & Engineering
Scientific understanding of fluid flow in rock fractures--a process underlying contemporary earth science problems from the search for petroleum to the controversy over nuclear waste storage--has grown significantly in the past 20 years. This volume presents a comprehensive report on the state of the field, with an interdisciplinary viewpoint, case studies of fracture sites, illustrations, conclusions, and research recommendations. The book addresses these questions: How can fractures that are significant hydraulic conductors be identified, located, and characterized? How do flow and transport occur in fracture systems? How can changes in fracture systems be predicted and controlled? Among other topics, the committee provides a geomechanical understanding of fracture formation, reviews methods for detecting subsurface fractures, and looks at the use of hydraulic and tracer tests to investigate fluid flow. The volume examines the state of conceptual and mathematical modeling, and it provides a useful framework for understanding the complexity of fracture changes that occur during fluid pumping and other engineering practices. With a practical and multidisciplinary outlook, this volume will be welcomed by geologists, petroleum geologists, geoengineers, geophysicists, hydrologists, researchers, educators and students in these fields, and public officials involved in geological projects.
Contemporary Understanding and Applications Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow, Commission on ... This power law form of the power spectrum indicates that fracture surface topography can be represented in terms of ...
Author: Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow
Publisher: National Academies Press
The detection and characterization of fractures in rocks is a major concern to many branches of engineering geoscience. Fractures are major conduits along which fluids flow and they are both planes of weakness and a source of additional compliance in rock masses. In this thesis, a displacement- and velocity- discontinuity theory of wave propagation across a fracture is presented, as well as experimental data that validates use of this theory for wave propagation across fractures. In this theory, the fracture is represented as a non-welded boundary between two elastic half-spaces. The boundary conditions that describe the displacement discontinuity are: 1) the stress across the boundary is continuous; 2) the displacements are discontinuous. The ratio between the seismic stress and the discontinuity in particle displacement is the specific stiffness of the fracture. The corresponding boundary conditions for the velocity-discontinuity are: 1) the stress across the boundary is continuous; 2) the velocity is discontinuous across the boundary. The ratio between the seismic stress and the discontinuity in particle velocity is the specific viscosity of the fluid in the fracture.
0.0e + 0 4 a ) Theoretical Transmission Coefficient 5.0e + 5 1.0e + 6 Frequency ( Hz ) c ) Measured Fractured Spectrum 1.5e + 6 0 + 0.0e + 0 3.0 1.0e + 6 Frequency ( Hz ) 5.0e + 5 1.5e + 6 transmission curves ( equation 2.19 ) , for a ...
Author: Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte
Category: Elastic solids
Given the power spectrum as above , the frequency spectrum of peaks of vertical gust velocity may be derived from the theory developed in Ref . ( 138 ) . Thus G , = Average number of times in unit distance that we passes through zero ...
Author: Harold Liebowitz
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Category: Fracture mechanics
Fracture and Fracture Mechanics: Case Studies contains the proceedings of the Second National Conference on Fracture, held at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa on November 26-27, 1984. This book presents case studies in fracture and fracture mechanics and highlights the problems associated with fracture, failure analysis, and safe design in industries as diverse as mining, power generation, transport, petrochemical, and manufacturing. This book has 29 chapters divided into five sections and opens with a discussion on the role of professional complacency in bridge failures. The first section is devoted to failure investigation and covers topics ranging from failure analysis of a hydraulic retarder piston to the use of scanning electron microscopy in investigating tungsten carbide-cobalt fractured components. The second section deals with slow crack growth and considers an approach to assessing structural integrity and fatigue failures in vibrating equipment. Failures arising from repair welding and incomplete heat treatment are described. The remaining chapters explore fitness for purpose evaluation of fractures; the environmental effects of fractures; and case studies of failure prevention in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, and transportation. This monograph will be of interest to structural engineers, metallurgists, and materials scientists and technologists.
from the aircraft's landing spectrum. This landing spectrum is thus a specification of maximum, minimum and mean loads allowable on landing or that an aircraft would endure if flown within it's design envelope. This immediately poses a ...
Author: R. B. Tait
Category: Technology & Engineering
Issues of homosexuality are the subject of public and political controversy in many African societies today. Frequently, these controversies receive widespread attention both locally and globally, such as with the Anti-Homosexuality Bill in Uganda. In the international media, these cases tend to be presented as revealing a deeply-rooted homophobia in Africa fuelled by religious and cultural traditions. But so far little energy is expended in understanding these controversies in all their complexity and the critical role religion plays in them. Complementing the companion volume, Public Religion and the Politics of Homosexuality in Africa, this book investigates Christian politics and discourses on homosexuality in sub-Saharan Africa. The contributors present case studies from various African countries, from Nigeria to South Africa and from Cameroon to Uganda, focusing on Pentecostal, Catholic and mainline Protestant churches. They critically examine popular Christian theologies that perpetuate homophobia and discrimination, but they also discuss contestations of such discourses and emerging alternative Christian perspectives that contribute to the recognition of sexual diversity, social justice and human rights in contemporary Africa.
Fractured Spectrum: Perspectives on ChristianMuslim Relations in Nigeria. New York: Peter Lang, 43–62. Ukah, Asonzeh (2014). 'Fractured Dialogue or PostEcumenism? Democratic Politics and the Afterlife of the Christian Association of ...
Author: Ezra Chitando
In the preliminary stage of designing new structural hardware to perform a given mission in a fluctuating load environment, there are several factors that the designer should consider. Trade studies for different design configurations should be performed and, based on strength and weight considerations, among others, an optimum configuration selected. The selected design must withstand the environment in question without failure. Therefore, a comprehensive structural analysis that consists of static, dynamic, fatigue, and fracture is necessary to ensure the integrity of the structure. Engineers must also consider the feasibility of fabricating the structural hardware in the material selection process. During the past few decades, fracture mechanics has become a necessary discipline for the solution of many structural problems in which the survivability of structure containing pre-existing flaws is of great interest. These problems include structural failures resulting from cracks that are inherent in the material, or defects that are introduced in the part due to improper handling or rough machining, that must be assessed through fracture mechanics concepts.
Strain Energy Damage Rate ( SEDR ) , 5 ) Equivalent Fracture Toughness ( Figure 10 ( d ) ) . ... Percent damage Volume Vs. Load Spectrum Spectrum b ) DERR Vs. Load Spectrum 10 10 Global Failure k 34 CYCLE 6405 4270 2139 Stress Intensity ...
Author: Bahram Farahmand
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
R. J. Bucci1 Spectrum Loading— A Useful Tool to Screen Effects of Microstructure on Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance REFERENCE: ... Resistance," Flaw Growth and Fracture, ASTMSTP 631, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, pp.
Publisher: ASTM International
We may live in astonishing times, but they are not incomprehensible when you know how to read the signs. Everybody says we're entering the Age of Aquarius, but when does it start, and how will we know what it looks and feels like? Ray Grasse deciphers the signs and correspondences of our nearing Aquarian future, using the tools of astrology, synchronicity, and mythology. He draws richly from contemporary religion, art, politics, science, even current movies, to show how the cultural signs of Aquarius and our likely future are already apparent and changing our world. The Aquarian Age will be marked by its intensely mental quality, when information will be the driving force of society and the biggest challenges we face will be those of the mind. Decentralization will be the order of business, either the empowered individual will reign supreme, or the collective interests of globalized society will predominate. It could be both. We are all participants in the global drama and all aspects of our inner and outer lives are bound up with the new Aquarian themes. ‘Signs of the Times' is the authoritative travel guide for the trip into our future – don't leave the present without it.
This is the principle of the “fractured spectrum,” aptly symbolized by the Frankenstein monster, a creature comprised of widely diverse parts with little sense of unity. It is important to note that none of these five.
Author: Ray Grasse
Publisher: Hampton Roads Publishing
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit