"Although cases of autism can, in retrospect, be identified before Kanner's 1943 classic report (also see Donvan and Zucker 2016), it was Kanner's genius to put together the core features that we continue to associate with autism; autistic aloneness and restricted interests/difficulties with change. This description was straightforward and atheoretical and has stood the test of time even as we debate the boundaries of autism today. The early years following Kanner's initial presentation were plagued by a lack of consistency in diagnosis and several mistaken beliefs about autism, e.g., associations with childhood schizophrenia and inappropriate parenting. This changed dramatically in the 1970s as three lines of evidence helped establish the validity of autism as a diagnostic concept: These included: 1) the awareness that autism was a brain-based disorder associated with high rates of epilepsy with peaks of onset in early childhood and adolescence, 2) the first twin studies of autism made it clear that there was a very strong genetic component of autism with high concordance in MZ twins, and 3) children with autism responded best to structured teaching rather than unstructured psychotherapy (see Jackson and Volkmar, 2019 for a discussion)"--
Thus , diagnostic criteria for ADHD were modified in the DSM - 5 , no longer considering an ASD diagnosis as an exclusion for ADHD and permitting co - diagnosis of the two conditions , while also inviting scientific discoveries about ...
Author: Katherine K. M. Stavropoulos
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Family & Relationships
Two key challenges face mental health practitioners: making the correct psychiatric diagnosis and choosing the most appropriate treatment option. This book aims to help with both. Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders - Second Edition combines clinically-relevant information about each of theDSM-IV-TR diagnoses with clear, detailed information on treatment options, giving full clinical management advice. Once again, the editors, both leading psychiatrists, have condensed the chapters on Disorders from Tasman et al’s acclaimed two volume textbook of Psychiatry (now in its Third Edition), retaining only the content they deem particularly relevant to the clinician for ease of use. Each disorder is discussed under the headings of Diagnosis (including Assessment Issues, Comorbidity, Course, and Differential Diagnosis, giving diagnostic decision trees where relevant) and Treatment (listing all therapeutic options, giving practical advice for patient management, summarising treatment specifics with tables and treatment flowcharts). The original edition established itself as the first point of reference for any clinician or mental health practitioner needing expert advice on therapeutic options for any psychiatric disorder. This edition features an additional chapter on the psychiatric interview and assessment of mental status to increase its utility. It echoes the progress in psychiatry regarding the establishment of an evidenced-based model of taxonomy, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. Indeed, from a psychologist's perspective, the equal consideration provided to empirically supported psychosocial treatments versus somatic treatment is a significant development in the field of psychiatry. Jonathan Weinand in PsycCritiques, the American Psychological Association Review of Books
Functional consequences of persistent hyperactivity–impulsivity may include impairments in driving, early sexual activity, ... Differential diagnosis There is verylittle overlap in the defining characteristics of ADHD, ODD, and CD.
Author: Michael B. First
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder provides a framework for clinical considerations and best practices related to diagnosing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus commonly co-occurring conditions. Differential diagnosis is a complex process, and it is common for clinicians to observe symptom overlap between conditions. In this comprehensive text, the authors focus on the similarities and differences between ASD and a second diagnosis. Leading experts provide practical guidance in the diagnostic process for ASD versus a second condition, such as anxiety or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Each chapter includes clinical case studies to provide real-world examples of how clinicians make diagnostic decisions. Ample illustrations and 'decision trees' provide a visual representation of clinical decision-making.
In this comprehensive text, the authors focus on the similarities and differences between ASD and a second diagnosis.
Author: Katherine K. M. Stavropoulos
Publisher: Oxford University Press
An estimated seven million American adults have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Understanding and Treating Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder provides accurate, timely information about the nature and treatment of this disorder. Written in a collegial style, this resource combines evidence-based material with clinical experience to address problems in diagnosing and treating adults with ADHD. Dr. Doyle shows how diagnostic and treatment methods in children with ADHD also apply to affected adults. He examines the role of medications, including new agents that expand the range of therapeutic choices. Understanding the evolution of the concept and treatment of ADHD in children illuminates current thinking about the disorder in adults. Dr. Doyle presents guidelines for establishing a valid diagnosis, including clinical interviews and standardized rating scales. He covers genetic and biochemical bases of the disorder. He also addresses the special challenges of forming a therapeutic alliance -- working with "coach" caregivers; cultural, ethnic, and racial issues; legal considerations; and countertransference issues. He explores a range of options for treating adult ADHD: Detailed facts about using medication, with specific information on both CNS stimulants and nonstimulant medications. He also discusses highly touted medications that are actually ineffective. Full coverage of comprehensive treatment approaches beyond medication -- focusing on cognitive behavioral therapies, among others. He uses a detailed clinical example drawn from several patients to illustrate issues involved in treating ADHD adults over time. Complete review of conditions that may require treatment before ADHD can be addressed. Many ADHD adults struggle with comorbid anxiety, affective disorders, and substance abuse. Dr. Doyle explains how overlooked ADHD can complicate the treatment of other disorders. He provides strategies for the patient with medication-resistant or treatment-refractory ADHD. The book provides in-depth discussion of such issues as the impact of ADHD in the workplace, including steps for maximizing job satisfaction; special considerations related to women; and the effect of ADHD on families. A useful appendix helps readers and patients find reliable information about ADHD on the Internet, allowing clinicians to develop an "e-prescription" to supplement medication and other interventions. Dr. Doyle advocates the promise of enhanced life prospects for adults with ADHD that effective treatment provides. Besides addressing the special challenges of ADHD adults, Dr. Doyle conveys the rewards of working with patients who prove resourceful, creative, and persistent.
In addition to hyperactivity and inattention , the patient must show at least two of five other symptoms ... Differential Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults The task of differential diagnosis of the adult with ADHD can be much harder than ...
Author: Brian B. Doyle
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
This groundbreaking volume, written by pioneering clinicians and researchers firmly convinced of the neurobiological underpinnings of ADD in adults, is the first to provide broad coverage of this burgeoning field. Written for professionals who diagnose and treat adults with ADD, it provides information from psychologists and physicians on the most current research and treatment issues regarding our understanding of ADD as a neurobiological disorder. According to the contributors, ADD in adults may be responsible for difficulties ranging from minor attention, memory, and organization problems in well-functioning adults to drug abuse and criminal behavior. A Comprehensive Guide to Attention Deficit Disorder in Adults begins by addressing the history of ADD and the evolution of our understanding of the disorder. The neurobiology of ADD is examined, laying a solid foundation for the clinician to develop a scientific understanding of this complex syndrome. The assessment and differential diagnosis of ADD is explored from the perspectives of a variety of specialists in the field. This includes an exploration of the interrelationships between attention deficit disorder and other neurodevelopmental disabilities that may interact with ADD to affect cognitive functioning, and an examination of the connections between ADD and a host of psychiatric conditions. Also covered is the process of differential diagnosis from a neurological perspective, which will help the non-medically trained clinician better to determine when a complete neurological evaluation seems warranted in the assessment process. Authors examine ADD with and without hyperactivity and describe a wide range of assessment tools that can be useful in developing a full diagnostic picture of different conditions that must be addressed in treating adults with the disorder. A wealth of experience, highly practical suggestions, and an optimistic outlook are the hallmark of the section on treatment. The authors strongly recommend a multifaceted treatment plan combining medication, psychotherapy, and addressing the pervasive self-esteem issues which typically haunt the adult whose condition has gone untreated. Specific treatment issues for Adults with ADD are also discussed. These include:- * the development of practical life management skills * the difficulties in relationships * ADD within the context of marriage and family * and higher education and the workplace. The volume concludes with a discussion of the legal implications of the diagnosis of ADD in adults as it pertains to education and employment, the important role of support groups for adults with ADD, and a thought-provoking examination of current and future research including the need for increased public recognition of ADD in adults. A Comprehensive Guide to Attention Deficit Disorder in Adults is a pioneering volume that will bring the most current information available to the attention of those able to help adult ADD sufferers...vocation and rehabilitation counselors, and numerous psychotherapists who recognize symptoms of depression and anxiety, but perhaps overlook the underlying attention deficit disorder. It will stimulate the interdisciplinary research that is the key to increasing knowledge and educate those who can truly make a difference.
Prospectively and retrospectively, such behaviors could readily be diagnosed as ADHD and Oppositional Defiant or Conduct Disorder. Complicating the evaluation, particularly when presenting to an ADHD specialty practice, is the either ...
Author: Kathleen G. Nadeau
Most people still think of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a psychiatric condition affecting only children and adolescents. In this book, Paul H. Wender offers compelling firsthand accounts from adults who suffer with this malady, bringing together a wealth of information not available in any other volume. Illustrations.
The differential diagnosis between ADHD and biological depression can pose a special problem when the chronic non - ADHD depression is mild , when the ADHD patient is seriously demoralized from continual setbacks ( which may produce ...
Author: Paul H. Wender
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral disorder. Moreover, many students receiving special education assistance are reported to have ADHD. Children with ADHD may experience significant school adjustment difficulties and achievement problems. Problem behaviors associated with attention deficits and hyperactivity often have a negative impact on the classroom, and, therefore, may compromise the learning environment for many, if not all, students. There is a critical need for school professionals to identify, assess, and treat students with ADHD. Identifying, Assessing, and Treating ADHD at School brings science to practice, providing school professionals invaluable information to meet the needs of children with ADHD. This volume, designed as a practical, easy-to-use reference for school psychologists and other mental health and educational professionals: Explains why school psychologists and their colleagues need to be prepared and able to identify and serve students with ADHD. Identifies the prevalence, influences, and associated conditions. Provides a review of screening, referral, and diagnostic assessment processes. Offers guidance on conducting psychoeducational assessments. Reviews evidence-based treatments. Offers practical guidance on setting up programs that address individual and classroom issues. School psychologists and other education and mental health professionals will find Identifying, Assessing, and Treating ADHD at School an exceptional resource in working to enhance the mental health and academic development of students.
Differential diagnosis. Finally, ADHD diagnostic requirements require that other conditions with similar symptoms be ruled out before an ADHD diagnosis is made (APA, 2000). Table 5.2 provides some guidance regarding how ADHD is ...
Author: Stephen E. Brock
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
From foremost authority Russell A. Barkley, this book presents essential principles and practices for managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and teens. Barkley interweaves the best scientific knowledge with lessons learned from decades of clinical practice and research. He provides guidelines and clinical tips for conducting thorough, accurate assessments and developing and implementing science-based treatment plans. The book is grounded in Barkley's theory of ADHD as a disorder of executive functioning and self-regulation. Ways to collaborate successfully with parents and other professionals are highlighted throughout. In a convenient large-size format, the volume includes 45 reproducible handouts and forms that can be downloaded and printed for repeated use.
Clinical Tips to Assist with Diagnosis Where ADHD is present, experts in BPD diagnosis recommend that the ADHD symptoms (including irritability) that appear on the BPD list not be counted toward the threshold needed for a diagnosis of ...
Author: Russell A. Barkley
Publisher: Guilford Publications
Worldwide longitudinal studies performed since the 1970s have clearly shown that ADHD persists into adulthood. These findings have stimulated researchers to develop the therapeutic approaches for adult patients, especially in European countries where scientific and clinical interest in ADHD has increased.. In this volume, leading experts from Europe and the United States present their long-term results in order to provide an overview of important aspects of ADHD across the lifespan. These results include epidemiology, neurobiology, psychopathology, longitudinal course, comorbidity and social impairment associated with ADHD. Topics include diagnostic problems and therapeutic options as well as molecular genetic studies. Further, morphological and functional imaging studies in adult ADHD are reviewed, as well as the very important issue of comorbidity. Providing an excellent source of up-to-date information, this publication is essential reading for psychiatrists, neurologists, geneticists, psychotherapists, physicians and other therapists working with ADHD patients.
Thus, perhaps the best way to determine the complete signs and symptoms of adult ADHD would be to due longitudinal, follow-up studies. This is a topic very much in need of further research. Differential Diagnosis One major diagnostic ...
Author: Wolfgang Retz
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Ferri's Differential Diagnosis is a quick reference to the differential diagnosis, etiology, and classification of clinical disorders, signs, and symptoms. Dr. Fred F. Ferri-the respected best-selling author-presents over 1000 signs, symptoms, and clinical disorders. Comprehensive yet small enough to fit in your pocket, this portable guide is a rapid resource for everything you see in daily practice-from abdominal distension to Zenker's Diverticulum. Quickly locate the information you need with an organization that presents differential diagnosis by sign and symptom as well as disorder. Easily identify the likeliest diagnosis through diagnostic possibilities listed in order of incidence. Tap into the authoritative guidance of Dr. Fred Ferri, the respected expert responsible for best-selling titles such as Ferri's Clinical Advisor, Ferri's Fast Facts, and Practical Guide to the Care of the Medical Patient. Apply the differential diagnosis of over 100 new signs, symptoms, and clinical disorders.
A Practical Guide to the Differential Diagnosis of Symptoms, Signs, and Clinical Disorders Fred F. Ferri, MD, FACP. 58 ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) • Endomyocardial fibrosis • Sinus of Valsalva fistula ...
Author: Fred F. Ferri, MD, FACP
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences